Completed R&D Projects

Abstract of Completed Research projects of the 12th Five Year Plan under the IHRD Scheme

S.No Title of the Project Abstract
1 Development and Demonstration of an Adaptive Protection Scheme for Distribution Systems under High Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources

A novel protection algorithm has been developed under this project. The algorithm has also been realized in a hardware prototype and tested at CPRI.

2 Studies to Establish Critical Resistive Leakage Current of Gapless ZnO Polymeric Surge Arresters for In-service Failure Prediction

Determining the critical resistive leakage current beyond which a ZnO Polymeric Surge Arrester shall be removed from service is of utmost importance. This will prevent a sudden explosion of the arrester components in the event of its sudden failure due to internal short circuit damaging nearby substation equipment / personnel. Under this project a stable operating point and thermal in-stability point for the arrestors has also been proposed using the electro -thermal model of the arrester. Also, criteria for determining the Critical Resistive Leakage Current (CRLC) and Observation Current (OBCUR) has been established.

3 A study on the effect of nanoparticles on the critical parameters of insulating fluids

Under this project novel nano-fluids were developed which exhibited improved performance in terms of dielectric permittivity. Two patents have been filed under the project.

4 Effect of harmonic due to large scale penetration of Rooftop SPV Power Plant

The main objective of the project was to study of causes and effects of Harmonics created by grid connected PV systems in a cluster of installations.

5 A reliable optimal smart metering infrastructure for smart Grid

Design, preparation and simulation of network plan for reliable optimal smart metering infrastructure for smart grid has been carried out under this project.

6 Evaluation of the co-firing characteristics of alternative fuels blended with high ash content Indian coal for power generation

Under this project Co-firing characteristics of high ash Indian coals with different proportion of identified biomass (Coconut shell, Ground nut shell, Coffee husk and Rice husk) has been studied and the results were documented. The Optimum mix ratio has been achieved wherein high calorific value was obtained with less ash content as compared to 100% coal.

7 Dielectric nano-composites for capacitors applications

Under this project Nano ceramics were prepared by oxalate precursor route. Further the Nano ceramics were doped with suitable materials. The doped nano ceramics were tested for applicability in capacitor applications. Finally a lab scale prototype capacitor was fabricated with the most optimal nano-ceramic.

8 Smart Inverter with E meter and IOT.

A novel multi-level inverter has been developed under this project with fewer power switches. The inverters designed showed Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and harmonics well within the limit as per IEEE 519.

9 Development of flame retardant polymer composites for insulating applications

Under this project flame retardant polymer composites for 33 kV distribution power cable application has been developed. Further, egg shell nano particles were used as filler material for the flame retardant composites. The developed composites were analyzed for structural, morphological, electrical, thermal, mechanical, physical and chemical and flame retardant properties. The performance was at found to be par with the Mg(OH)2 Nano Particles used for similar application.

10 Design and Development of 10 kA 1000 V Synchronized Static switch for Evaluation of Breaking Performance of Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB)

Make switches are required in Short-circuit test stations in order to achieve perfect fault making instances. ln this project a 10kA 1kV Thyristor AC switch is designed and developed which can be used as a very fast Make Switch for short-circuit test applications. The power circuit consists of antiparallel thyristors in each phase and is so designed such that it can withstand repetitive surge currents of 20kA for 50ms. Control circuit is purely designed in-house and developed to precisely achieve switch closing at specific point on the wave.

11 A Laboratory Investigation for Standardization of Testing Method for Pollution Performance of Polymer Insulators

In this study a practical approach has been developed to determine the performance of polymers with pollutant coating. A proper coating methodology has also been adopted to test the insulator for its pollution performance in its completely hydrophilic condition which represents the worst condition for the insulator. This work is significant in order to test the pollution performance of the polymeric insulator which is essential for designing and selection of polymeric insulators.

12 Assessment of Pollution level and Design of External Insulation for High Voltage Transmission System

The influence of profile on the pollution performance of insulator strings has been studied under this project by conducting series of the maximum withstand severity tests on 15 different profiles of cap-and-pin insulator strings used in 220 kV and 400 kV systems. Two novel insulator designs has been developed and patented under this project. The insulators have demonstrated better pollution performance than the existing ones.

13 Assessment of low cycle thermal fatigue damage in steam turbine during transient

The primary objective of the project was assessment of damage of turbine components based on low cycle thermal fatigue. The outcome of the research project helped in standardization of quantitative evaluation of low cycle fatigue damage and provided better guidance in carrying out Remaining Life Assessment (RLA) of steam turbine.

14 A Study to Evolve a Comprehensive Test to distinguish between the Qualities of Primary and Secondary Grade Electrical (CRGO) Steels

Secondary grade CRGO steel may enter the transformer industry due to huge cost saving. In this project experiments were conducted on primary and secondary grade CRGO steel from various sources to identify important characteristics to distinguish between the qualities of Primary and Secondary Grade CRGO steel. It was inferred that no single property could serve as diagnostic measure for distinguishing between primary and secondary steels. It was observed that after ageing studies, a combination of properties such as ductility, insulation resistance and power factor jointly revealed the presence of secondary grade steel.

15 Development of Nano- Ash Polymer Composites for Electromagnetic Shielding Application.

Under this project a process was developed for electroless coating of metals/alloys on nano-ash particles and achieved uniform dispersion of these particles along with conductive fillers in polymer matrix. The process resulted in higher surface area, good conductivity and improved EMI Shielding effectiveness.

16 Laboratory studies on the performance of natural esters as replacement to mineral insulating fluids

Exploratory studies were conducted on oils obtained from natural esters and investigated on their suitability to be used as liquid insulating materials. Experiments were also carried out to modify the parameters which are beyond the acceptable criteria as per the international standards IEC 62770.

17 Development of Technology of Reconditioning and Reclamation of Turbine Lubricants – Phosphate Esters

Turbines of various capacities are used in Thermal and Hydroelectric Power stations. Due to the fire hazard, many power stations have adopted fire safe lubricants based on phosphate esters. Phosphate esters are practically stable, possess good lubricity and have fire retardant properties. They are unstable with respect to hydrolysis. In presence of moisture they undergo hydrolysis releasing phosphoric acid derivatives. Normally these have acid removing cartridge systems installed during their fresh charging conditions. During service, adsorbent columns will be rendered inefficient and acid content increases. If the acid content is beyond 15mgKOH/gm of oil, lubricant is found to initiate damage on the surface of the metallic parts and hence, it is strongly advised to reject. Conventional techniques of reconditioning have been found to be unsuitable as metallic ions in the adsorbent (korvi earth) will react with phosphoric acid derivatives to form metal soaps and get dissolved in the phosphate ester matrix. These will increase the air absorption and hence air release value increases and leads to inefficient lubrication. Further, these esters have been found to be polluting and have been banned for normal disposal techniques. In this project a state of art technology for reconditioning is developed along with a safe and easy reconditioning technique by which the free acids and moisture are to be removed without affecting the lubricant characteristics of the phosphate esters.

18 Development of on line Dissolved Gas Analysis system for power transformers

Diagnostic monitoring of power transformers has been done effectively for the last sixty years with the help of Gas chromatographic system. But the Gas Chromatograph (GC) system needs some complex infrastructure and hence only in the laboratory conditions the instruments are functional. The transformer oil samples are brought to the laboratory and the analysis is carried out in the lab. Whenever abnormal gas generation conditions are experienced, the maintenance engineers have to send the samples to the laboratory where the analysis is carried out and wait for the results to take decisions on the functional safety of the power equipment without leading to catastrophic failures and help saving essential component. This has serious revenue consequences. Hence under the project a novel Dissolved Gas Analysis setup (patent pending) was developed. The setup has easy integration and utility value to be used in general gas chromatographic setup. The setup has provisions to be used in a Gas Chromatographic setup for online DGA system.

19 Effect of Additives On Gassing Tendency And Other Electro Chemical Properties Of Transformer Oil as well as Copper Corrosion of paper oil Insulation System

Several additives, inhibitors and passivator are being added to the Transformer oil to improve specific properties and also to impart stability to oil against oxidation. The effect of these additives on gassing tendency of the oil and also on corrosion aspect of copper in oil-paper composite insulation system has been studied under this project.

20 Studies on stability of various Insulating Liquids under electrical discharge

Oxidation stability test for new transformer oil is being carried out as per IEC 61125 and IS 335 standards. This test takes a very long time from 7 days to 23 days depending on whether the oil is uninhibited or inhibited. No test method to assess the oxidation stability of in-service transformer oil is available in the standard specification. ASTM D6180 standard describes a test method to determine the stability of both new and in-service transformer oil under electrical discharge which consumes comparatively less time of about 6 hours. In this project the stability of insulating oils under electrical discharge with conventional test methods were carried out and compared.

Abstract of Completed Research projects of the 12th Five Year Plan under the RSoP Scheme

S.No Title of the Project Implementing Organization Abstract
1 Development of solid state transformer as a wind power interfacing device National Institute of Technology Calicut

A multifunctional Solid State Transformer prototype has been developed (for 1kVA output) which can have active power control, reactive power compensation, voltage conversion, bi-directional power flow and fault detection & isolation using simple and cheaper control strategy.

2 Characterization of Electric Double Layer Super Capacitor with CNT-conducting Polymers / Metal Oxide Composites and Nano Dielectrics R.V. College of Engineering, Bengaluru

Under this project PANI (Polyaniline)/TiO2 nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications were synthesized by interfacial polymerization method. Superior electrochemical performance makes the PANI/TiO2 nanocomposites promising electrode material for future generation energy storage. PANI/TiO2 device provides high-power density to achieve almost instant charge in seconds. A lab scale prototype of capacitor has also been developed under the project.

3 Hybrid HVDC Systems for Multi Infeed Applications M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bengaluru

Some of the issues of concern in a Multi Infeed High voltage Direct Current (MI-HVDC) system are increased over-voltages, high risk of commutation failure, voltage and power instabilities and AC/DC fault recovery. These issues are of serious concern when the MI-HVDC is inverting into a weak system. The advantages of VSC - HVDC link, in terms of avoiding commutation failure, reducing harmonics and an ability to invert into a weak AC system have encouraged us to propose an LCC-VSC hybrid HVDC link to replace one of the LCC-LCC HVDC link in the MIDC system. The dynamic analysis of the MTDC system is carried out for different controllers at the VSC. It is concluded here that by using one hybrid link the overall performance of the MIDC system is improved by a large extent. Replacing one LCC inverter with a VSC inverter not only reduces the cost as compared to VSC-VSC HVDC link but also improves the performance of the overall system while inverting into weak AC system.

4 Development of Control Strategies for Grid Connected PV System utilizing the MPPT and Reactive Power Capability Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

Under this project novel PV solar farm simulation models with advance controllers (such as PLL control, current control, dc-link voltage control and Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control schemes) have been developed for distribution grid studies. The developed model has been found to be better than existing models in terms of simplicity, accuracy and smoothness in representing the PV characteristics. A methodology for feeding the reactive power to the grid along with the real power by utilizing the capacity of the dc-ac power converter of the grid connected PV system was also developed. Further a methodology for obtaining P-Q capability curve has been developed under the project.

5 Development of High temperature Low Sag Nano composite Core SIT, Tumkur

A novel alternative to existing ACSR conductors using hybrid epoxy composites core, is proposed under this project. Extensive characterization and experimental tests were carried out to evaluate electro thermal and thermo mechanical properties of hybrid epoxy composites used in the core. The results indicate that the HTLS nano composite core developed has better electrical performance compared to that of the ACSR line in terms of reduced operating temperature, and thermal conductivity and sag. The findings of this study indicate that with the use of hybrid nano composite flexural strength and storage modulus can be improved. This can increase the efficiency and life span of the transmission lines.

6 Development and AC Characterization of 2nd Generation High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) based Modular SFCL System Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

A modular Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) unit with HTS tapes has been developed under this project. A lab-scale fault generating facility has also been designed and developed for characterizing the HTS based modular unit at 77K.

7 Studies on Development of Guidelines for Best Practices in Water & Waste Usage in Coal Based Thermal Power Plants Excellence Enhancement Centre for Indian Power Sector, New Delhi

As an outcome of this project “Guidelines for Optimization of Water & Wastewater usage in coal based Thermal Power Plants” has been prepared and released. The report is based on the findings for 4 Thermal Power Stations namely Kota TPS (210 MW), Sikka TPS (250 MW), Bhuswal TPS (500 MW) and NTPC Barh STPS (660 MW).

8 Erosion-Corrosion Studies on Thermal Sprayed Conventional and Nanostructured Coatings IIT Madras

Under this project various coatings were developed for Stainless Steel substrate with optimised process conditions. The structural and morphological features of the above coatings were characterized. Erosion-corrosion behaviour of coatings has been quantified. Further the coating with the best performance on erosion-corrosion has been reported.

9 Compilation of Data on Latest Technologies in Geological & Geotechnical Investigations and Problems Faced & Mitigation Measures adopted during Execution of Hydroelectric Projects CBIP

Under this project compilation of a compendium of data and measures taken at various hydroelectric projects with regard to problems faced during project construction and its mitigation methods was carried out. The project report brought out advanced tools & techniques and best practices -in geological & geotechnical investigation during execution of hydroelectric projects. It is expected that the report will help in enhancing efficiency of project execution.

10 Design, development and deployment of grid interfaced power conversion unit for solar -wind power generation system Arunai Engineering College

A grid interfaced power conversion unit for solar -wind power generation system has been developed and deployed at the implementing organization under this project. Current-Voltage and Power-Voltage characteristics of the system for different solar insolation and temperature under normal/shaded conditions for solar PV system have been studied. Power conversion unit, Z source bidirectional converter has been developed for dc voltage regulation from wind and solar PV resources and Z source inverter has been used for dc to ac power conversion for feeding AC electric power to the grid. Steady state output DC voltage/current is monitored for wind generator and PV system. Output AC phase voltage and current at various load conditions, its harmonic spectrum, active and reactive power injected by the inverter into the grid and entire real time data measurement were carried out.

11 Development of a dsPIC based efficient system for simultaneous active power sharing and reactive power compensation in a grid-connected photovoltaic system Mizoram University

A MATLAB/SIMULINK model for a 2 kWp, 360 V PV array based grid-connected photovoltaic system (GCPVS) has been developed under this project and simulation based studies were performed. The design and fabrication of sensing and control circuitry were carried out. A dsPIC/FPGA based power flow control algorithm has been developed. The developed technology would help in scaling-up the penetration of PV power in low-voltage distribution system requiring minimum system maintenance and provide more flexibility in system operation.

12 Development of intelligent relaying scheme for microgrids with DG penetration IIT Bhubaneswar

Under this project a wide area based protective relaying scheme has been developed, which will be able to protect the power network with significant penetration of DGs. The protective scheme is designed to function under different operating conditions (grid-connected and islanding mode) and for different type of faults including symmetrical and asymmetrical faults, high resistance fault and remote end location faults. The relay developed is able to distinguish between the transient condition and grid islanding resynchronization condition from fault condition.

13 Development of Smart Grid, Controllers for Hybrid Renewable Distributed Generator for a Stand - alone and Grid-connected Operation Addressing Reliability and Power Quality Issues NIT Puducherry

Under this project a Photo Voltaic (PV) and Wind energy generation system were designed to operate as both standalone and integrated system. A new topology for Parallel Operation of Renewable Energy Based Distributed Generator system has been proposed under the project. The problem of Partial Shading Detection in PV Array was also addressed in the project. Maximum Power Tracking System using artificial intelligent techniques were also developed in the project.

14 Reduction of Switching Transients in Doubly Fed Induction Machines Used in Large Pumped Storage Plant IIT Roorkee

Operating procedure for smooth starting and regenerative braking of a large rated Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM) pump turbine unit was studied in detail under this project. Starting and braking operations were simulated in Matlab Simulink toolbox. Furthermore, an energy efficient starting strategy by injecting DC voltage to stator terminals (instead of short circuit at starting) was developed and tested. From the test results, it was observed that the developed energy efficient starting strategy has an ability to save 35 percent of energy consumption (during starting) in comparison with conventional start-up.

15 Dielectric Diagnosis of EHV Bushings using Frequency Domain Spectroscopy (FDS) including cause Identification for Abnormal Conditions of the Bushing TANGEDCO

Dielectric diagnosis of Extra High Voltage bushings was carried out using Frequency Domain Spectroscopy (FDS) under this project. Transformers of various ages were tested using FDS to measure the variations of Tan delta values of bushings over a wide range of frequencies and suggest the replacement strategy for the bushings with high, moderate and negative Tan delta. Around 133 of transformers were tested as part of this study, and defective bushings were identified and recommended for replacement.

16 Inferring the dielectric and partial discharge characteristics of nano fluids for power transformer applications Sona College of Engineering

The main aim of the study was to evaluate the dielectric and partial discharge characteristics of nano modified mineral oils and vegetable oils such as corn oil, palm oil, sunflower at different silica nano filler percentage weight concentrations. The Break Down Voltage, Average positive Lightning Impulse breakdown voltage and Partial Discharge Inception Voltage of nano modified oils were studied and were found to be significantly higher when compared with pure oil.

17 Hydrogen Fuel Generation by Splitting of Water using Nano sized Metal Doped Layered Titanates for Fuel Cell Applications (Joint Proposal) Alagappa College of Technology (A.C.Tech) Campus

Hydrogen fuel is one of the alternative energy sources. This research work was aimed at producing hydrogen fuel by splitting of water using photocatalysts such as Tin layered Titanates. When this hydrogen fuel generation is coupled with fuel cell, electricity can be derived. Band gap engineering has been done successfully for the layered titanates. The determined band gap values were found to be less than 3.2 eV which suggests that these materials will be very active in the visible region. Such economically attractive photocatalysts can split water in to hydrogen fuel just by irradiating water containing these catalysts with sunlight or any artificial visible irradiation.

18 Wide - Area Damping Controller Design for Power Systems National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Rourkela

Use of wide-area signals introduce delays in the feedback loop and investigations on the effect of delays on the performance of Wide-area PSS (WPSS) has been carried out under this project. Two benchmark power system models having inter-area modes were built in MATLAB-Simulink and investigations were made based on these models. A comparison of synchronized and non-synchronized feedback for WPSS through modal analysis of delay systems were made. Also, investigations on the effect of order of Pade approximation of the delay has been compared to the actual pole location of the system. Controller design for non-synchronized WPSS has been carried out in the H_∞ control framework with regional pole placement. Performance of the designed controllers are verified through simulations. The other problem investigated is the online identification of the oscillatory modes that are particularly useful when actual power system model is not available. A new mode estimation method incorporating adaptive filtering has been developed. The proposed method provides a more robust and accurate estimation of the modes as compared to other mode identification methods.

19 Use of Synchorphasors in Power System Load Modelling and State Estimation Indian Institute of Technology - Kanpur

Proper representation of components is essential for model-based analysis of an electric power system. The accuracy of system studies, such as stability and security analysis, depends largely on the accuracy of the models of loads, transmission lines, and associated equipment. Load modelling techniques based on measurements obtained from phasor measurement units (PMUs) are developed in this project for modelling aggregate loads in power systems. The methods take into consideration diverse types of disturbances in the system: large, small, and unbalanced disturbances. Requirement of measurement rate needed for various orders of complexity in modelling, and the effect of these models in diverse types of stability studies, are also investigated.

Second part of this project concentrated on synchrophasor based state estimation of power systems. With increasing deployment of PMUs, there is a need for developing algorithms for state estimators using PMU measurements. Hybrid state estimator (HSE) developed in the project can work in presence of both synchronized and asynchronous conventional measurements. Robust algorithms are developed to address numerical ill-conditioning that are frequently encountered in hybrid state estimation problem. Algorithms using PMU measurements only are also developed, which is applicable in case the system is completely observable with PMU measurements only.

For an interconnected power system having several sub-areas, each sub-area may run its own state estimator; while a central coordinator may estimate the states at a higher level. To address such situations, the project also developed algorithms for multi-area state estimator (MASE). As the databases of state estimator applications are usually proprietary in nature, it is difficult to exchange data among various sub-areas. This problem is addressed by CIM based data exchange framework.

Developed methodologies in this project are tested and validated in field, simulation, and on real-time power system simulators.

20 Common Information Model (CIM) Compliant Power System Network Model Exchange and Naming Schemes for Indian Utilities Indian Institute of Technology - Bombay

This project facilitates building experience in creation, exchange, validation and maintenance of power system network model using CIM. The primary beneficiaries of CIM modelling include system operators, vendors, utilities, and system integrators. System operators can establish an unambiguous and consistent definition of power system data throughout the system, thereby avoiding confusion. Operators can prepare specifications for ensuring CIM compliance while procuring the next generation SCADA/EMS systems. Manual actions can be eliminated and automation of various functions can be achieved in a phased manner. Vendors can develop integrated solutions configured to specific requirements. Utilities can get ready-made solutions in a modular fashion. System integrators, owing to interoperability, find it easier to integrate applications at syntactic and semantic levels.

21 Identification of Incipient Discharges in Transformer Insulation by Elastic Wave Sensing based on Fiber Bragg Gratings Indian Institute of Technology -Madras

Transformers are the heart of a power system network. With the advancements in power transmission capability, it has become essential to monitor the condition of transformer, to enhance the quality and reliability of power system network. Ideally, online monitoring with transformer energised would be the best as it has the potential to detect faults at the incipient stage and does not involve any down time. In this context, acoustic method of partial discharge detection is the most preferred technique since it also provides possibility of localization. In this project a novel method for detection of acoustic emissions from incipient discharges was developed using fibre Bragg grating based optical sensors.

22 FPGA Based Development of Different MPPT Algorithms for a Stand-Alone Photo Voltaic System using Artificial Intelligence National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal

Keeping in mind the advent of commercial PV Installations, this project aimed at developing maximum power point tracking algorithms incorporating artificial Intelligence for PV systems.

23 Understanding the Formation of Copper Sulphide in Transformer Insulation due to Multi - Stress Aging Indian Institute of Technology -Madras

Monitoring of the condition of transformer, to enhance the quality and reliability of power system network. Reliability of transformers depend on proper insulation design and by use of quality of insulating material. It is recently observed that elemental sulphur and thermally unstable sulphur species in transformer oil reacts with copper forming copper sulphide and diffuse into the pressboard insulating material adversely affecting the insulation performance of transformers. In this project formation of Copper Sulphide in Transformer Insulation due to Multi - Stress Aging has been studied.

24 Feasibility Studies / Design criteria for HTS Power Transmission Cables and demonstration of a simple Laboratory scale single phase HTS Indian Institute of Technology - Kharagpur

In this project a simple lab scale single phase HTS cable has been designed and demonstrated. Cooling strategies for reliable operation of HTS cables along with cryostat planning has also been devised in the project.

25 Design and Optimization of Feedback Controller for Boost type dc-dc Converters using Artificial Immune System National Institute of Technology - Trichy

Non-linear control techniques such as fuzzy control, sliding mode control etc. are proposed as viable alternatives for feedback control design in recent times. Controllers designed through such technique are shown to guarantee better dynamic and static performance over a wide range of operating points than conventional controllers.

In this project a cost effective and reliable closed loop control methodology for boost type dc-dc converters has been demonstrated using artificial immune system (AIS).

Abstract of Completed Research projects of the 12th Five Year Plan under the NPP Scheme

S.No Title of the Project Implementing Organization Abstract
1 Power Conversion, Control and Protection Technologies for Micro-Grid Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru

The following technologies were developed under the project:

Technologies for Photovoltaic conversion:

• Reconfigurable Grid-Battery Tie Inverter (RGTI) has been developed. RGTI functions as a photovoltaic grid-tie inverter when the grid is present. RGTI functions as an advanced charger to support external UPS and enhance its performance during outages.
• High-frequency link solar photovoltaic conversion
• Soft switching of the inverter devices
• The compact isolated output from the solar inverter

Phase Converter:

• Technology for power converter platforms from 3-30kW power level with advanced protection
• Active phase conversion technology with high efficiency

Wind Turbine Emulation:

• Control of SCIM to mimic the characteristics of a wind turbine
• Technologies for emulating motor with much less than the inertia of actual wind turbine
• Novel inertia control and compensation schemes:
• 1 degree of freedom control (1-DOF)
• Superior 2-DOF control

Battery Converter Systems

• Battery health enhancement technologies for advanced batteries and hybrid ultracapacitors

Micro-grid Protective Relays

• Linear programming technology for the Central Master controller (MC) to coordinate the relays in microgrid using three different IEEE standard curves
• MC controlled bi-directional over-current protection
• Relay coordination for multiple configurations of ring-type micro-grid
• Laboratory automated re-synchronization between synchronous machine DG and
• the main grid

2 Investigations on New Nano – composite materials for Electrical Insulation IIT Ropar

Under this project , various nano-composites like LDPE/ZnO, PVC/ZnO, LDPE/GO, LDPE /MgO were prepared and investigated for breakdown strength, space charge etc. The nanocomposites showing good results have been recommended for electrical insulation.

3 Development of Nano-structures – transformer oil Nano fluids for improvement of thermal and insulating properties. Bengal Engineering & Science University, Shibpur

Two-dimensional nano materials can be good choices as nano fillers in heat transfer fluids, due to their high surface area, lower filler fraction and of course better stability. In the present research work, novel 2D nanomaterials like chemically exfoliated Hexagonal Boron Nitride(h-BN) or white graphene and Amourphous Graphene (a-GS) nanosheets have been proposed and used for efficient thermal management and enhancement of electrical properties, to combat with ever increasing stresses on transformer oil. This research work covers the easy and cost effective synthesis process of these 2D nanofillers and preparation of the transformer oil nanofluid with superior electrical and thermal properties. The major outcome of the project is nano engineered transformer oil with improved thermal ( around 30% increment ) and electrical ( 15- 20% enhancement) properties and better stability at the cost of very low concentration( 0.005 – 0.05 wt %) of the surfactant free nanofillers as compared to its competitors as reported in the literature. Simple and cost elective bulk production of these nanofillers, show a promising future of transformer oil nanofluid in power industries. The present investigation is also proposing TiO2 and porous BN nanosheets as the potential 2D nanofiller for designing next generation transformer oils. The synthesis and experimentations with these nano fillers are under active research by the PI and her group. Apart from the transformer oil or other high voltage applications, these nano fillers can be used in any other coolants, like engine oil or lubricating oil for the enhancement of thermal conductivities.

For further information on any of the above projects please feel free to send us a mail at mvrao [at] cpri [dot] in